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History 4.5

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The territory of modern Uzbekistan is one of the centers of the birth and development of human civilization and has a nearly 3000-year history of statehood. Archaeological finds in the territories of Selengur, Kulbulak and Teshiktash monuments prove that the first human settlements on the territory of Uzbekistan are appeared hundreds of thousands of years ago.

In the territory of modern Uzbekistan there were the most ancient states: Bactria, Khorezm, Parthia, Sogd since the VIII century BC. The region became part of the empire of Alexander the Great in the IV century BC.. In the 8th century AD, the territory was conquered by the Arab Caliphate. In the XIII century was part of the  Empire of Genghis Khan, and in the XIV century - the Empire Tamerlane. In the XVI century, the Bukhara and Khiva khanates were emerged. The Kokand Khanate was emerged in the XVIII century . In the 60s - 70s of the XIX century, part of the territory of modern Uzbekistan became part of the Russian Empire, and the Bukhara and Khiva khanates were vassal dependent on Russia. After the 1917 revolution in Uzbekistan, there was a long time, fighting for independence from Russia. In 1924 the Uzbek SSR was formed and included the territories of the Bukhara and Khiva People's Soviet Republics and the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1936 the Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic joined the Uzbek SSR. On August 29, 1991 Uzbekistan declared independence, in fact the country became an independent state on December 26, 1991. Uzbekistan is a member of the UN, IMF, CFE, CIS

Uzbekistan has a rich history, rooted in the depths of millennia. According to archaeologists, it is one of the oldest human habitats. Only for the last half century several sites of people of the Stone Age were found by scientists. The most popular of them, are Tesiktash and Amankutan.

Fertile lands, good water sources, abundance of heat contributed to the development of agriculture. Huge rain-fed areas of deserts and steppes, located near the agricultural areas, served as pastures for cattle. As far as its development, the inhabitants of this territory established various ties with their neighbors. On the basis of the triad factors - geographical, economic and social - Mesopotamia formed the ancient states in Central Asia. They are Sogdiana, Bactria, Khorezm, Margiana and others.

Behind high walls in large cities with noisy markets and artisans' quarters, skilled weavers worked, potters molded and burned utensils, gunsmiths forged swords and helmets, jewelers made elegant ornaments. Products of local craftsmen were in great popularity not only in neighboring countries, but also far beyond the borders of Central Asia. There were continuous wars between the governments of the ancient East, almost. Their goal was to conquer foreign lands, seize slaves and other valuable prey. The richness of the province, its special geographical location attracted the attention of numerous invaders. In the second half of the first millennium BC. the states located on the territory of present-day Uzbekistan were conquered by the Achaemenid kings and became part of their vast empire as eastern possessions (satrapies) - in the 6th century BC. Central Asian Mesopotamia fell under the rule of the Persian kingdom. And in 329-327 years. BC. these lands were conquered by Alexander of Macedonia. Then, on the ruins of the Macedonian power, contours of new state associations began to appear. Bactria and Sogdiana became part of the Seleukid state. Later they entered the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and the Kushan Empire. In the VI century AD. Central Asian Mesopotamia was included in the Türkic khanate, which united the various tribes of Altai, Semirechie and Central Asia.

The periods of economic and cultural growth were followed by epochs of deep decline due to numerous invasions from different sides. However, the development process continued steadily due to the Great Silk Road, which connected the two edges of the world - Rome and China. As evidenced by historical chronicles, the idea of ​​laying this unique transcontinental road belongs to the Chinese emperor. The idea arose after a long journey of the Chinese messenger, who returned to his homeland and told about what he saw on his travels through the "Western" countries in 125 BC. It was turned out that behind the Great Wall of China, behind seemingly endless steppes and deserts there are mighty states, such as Khorezm, Sogdiana and others, with a highly developed original culture.

It is noteworthy that strangers not only brought their culture to this region, but also adopted the cultural traditions of local residents. And according to this kind of symbiosis, archeologists nowadays are able to find the remains of magnificent palaces, beautiful murals, statues, high reliefs in this area. The economy, art crafts and construction were on the process of development. The predominant religions among the population were Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. There were communities of Jews, Manichaeans and Christians in large cities. Written monuments of that time testify the cultural ties with India, Iran and Syria.

In the VII - early VIII century, the territory of this region was invaded by the Arabs.The subsequent period of Samanid rule in the history of the region is marked as the period of prosperity of cities that have become major centers of international trade and culture. Then it was captured and the dynasty of the Ghaznavids, Karakhanids, Seljuks began to rule here.

It should be noted that the process of forming nationalities in the territory of present-day Uzbekistan is attributed by the beginning of the first millennium BC. It was quite long. However, scientists directly trace the time of appearance of ethnic, "modern" Uzbeks, from the conquest of this territory in the beginning of the XIII century by Genghis Khan, and then - at the turn of the XV-XVI centuries - by Sheibani Khan. Followed by him , the tribes, which were collectively called "Uzbeks", moved there and gradually they started to assimilate with the local population.

One of the main strongholds of statehood in this region was Amir Temur. In the second half of the 14th century, taking advantage of the collapse of the possessions of Genghis Khan's heirs in Central Asia, he united them and created a powerful state with its capital in Samarkand. In 1380, Amir Temur began military campaigns to other countries. As a result, Iran, the Caucasus, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and Northern India were conquered.

The creation of a centralized state in the Central Asian Mesopotamia, called Movarounnahr, the elimination of fragmentation created favorable conditions for the development of the economy, undermined by the rule of the Mongols. Thanks to the political energy of Amir Temur, the institutions of state, social and military administration were significantly improved.

The rise of the development of science, architecture, urban planning, literature, fine and applied arts during the reign of Amir Temur and his heirs is a unique phenomenon on a global scale. By the way, the borders of the state, ruled by his glorified grandson Ulugbek, almost completely coincide with the borders of modern Uzbekistan. Ulugbek entered the world history not only as a politician, but also as an outstanding scientist, organizer and patron of science and the arts. They created an astronomical observatory that did not exist at that time

According to the theory of passionarity in the development of ethnoses, each nation at a certain time experiences periods not only of its becoming but also its maximum prosperity due to the emergence of a large number of energetic people due to the objective historical process, who find their application in various spheres of society's life and, thus, create the basis for a unique surge in its development.

This is also confirmed by the chronicles of the Middle Ages of Movarounnahar. In all countries, on all continents today are known the names of great statesmen, scientists, thinkers and poets who lived here and whose achievements have entered the treasury of the world civilization. Among them is Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicenna), who, along with Hippocrates, is considered to be the father of modern medicine, al-Khwarizmi, on whose behalf they received the name of algebra and algorithm, astronomer Ulugbek,  thanks to whom astronomy from the category of sacerdotal priesthood turned into science. This list is adorned with the names of the math scientist Abu Rayhon Beruni, the poet Alisher Navoi, the philosophers Bahouddin Naqshband, al-Bukhari and at-Termezi and many, many others.

Until now, astonishing palaces, mausoleums, madrassas and minarets created in the epoch of Temurids amaze travelers with their greatness. Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz are the treasuries of the history, which are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

After some decline in the period of the conquest of the province by Sheibani Khan, which became a time of "freezing", there was a start of the growth of civilizations and cultures went on. Bukhara, Kokand, and Khiva Khanate were appeared. The strength and will of people, their centuries-old traditions of high and spiritual culture have not dried up.

Of course, neighboring Russia could not ignore this geopolitically important region, which also had great economic interest for it. First of all, Russia was interested in agricultural products - cotton, leather. Workmanship of artisans are still famous for the amazing quality and fineness. In the late 40 - early 50-ies of the XIX century, there was a beginning of a gradual seizure of the territories of the territory of the imperial Russia. And in 1867, the Turkestan Governor General was established with the center in Tashkent.

Another page in the history of Uzbekistan was the period that followed the October Revolution in Russia in 1917. Soviet power was proclaimed in the Turkestan Territory in late 1917 - early 1918. In 1924, as a result of the national-state delimitation, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was formed, which became part of the USSR.

On August 31, 1991 at an extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the Republic, Uzbekistan was proclaimed as the independent country. On March 2, 1992, Uzbekistan became a full member of the United Nations and joined the Helsinki Process, signing the final act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation. Today, the independent republic of Uzbekistan is also a member of the world's leading economic and financial associations - the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Black Sea Economic Association, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and several other authoritative international organizations. Interest in the development of partnership with Uzbekistan is not only in the great potential of its natural resources, but also in the effectiveness of economic policies to maximize the development of integration ties in the economy and in all other spheres.

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