Ancient Andijan surrounded by picturesque hills, stretched in the southeast of the Fergana Valley. This city has the right to be proud of its venerable age (over 2000 years) and the fact that Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur - a famous poet and commander, a representative of the great dynasty of Timurids, founder of the Great Mogul empire in India was born in this city. The house of Babur is still preserved and opened for visitors.
Historical chronicles allow to speak about the large city situated here, which on the route of the Great Silk Road. It was considered as the eastern gate of the Fergana Valley. Throughout the whole route along the banks of the Karadarya River there were caravanserais.
The city appeared in the VI-IV centuries BC, on the site of one of the ancient settlements, which have survived to the present day in the form of fissured earthen hillocks. Numerous excavations, carried out on the territory of Andijan and its environs (Chordona, Sarvontepa) provided an essential material for determining the age of the city, which has been estimated for 25 centuries.
According to the famous Uzbek scientist Academician A.R. Muhammadjanov the name of the toponym of Andijan dates back to the Turkic-Mongolian term “settlement near the sai”. Andijan has been as the eastern gate of the Fergana Valley for numerous caravans on the Great Silk Road for a long time period.
In the 10th century Arab geographers and travelers of Istakhri, Magdisi, mention about the Andukan - a large, well-fortified city of artisans and merchants. At the end of the 15th century at the beginning of 16th century the city became the capital of Ferghana. Such information about the Andijan located on the southern shore of the Seyhun (Syr-Darya), we find in the book “Babur - name” of Zakhiriddin Babur: “Andijan is the capital of the Ferghana region”… There no fortress larger than Andijon in the Maverannahr, besides Samarkand and Kesh. There are three gates in the city, the arch of Andijan is on the south side. The water enters the city through nine channels: and the most interesting fact is that then this water does not go out at any place. Around the fortress, on the outside of the moat, there is a large road paved with rubble; the fortress is surrounded by suburbs, separated from the fortress by a moat. By the edge of which stretches a large road. There are a lot of game, pheasants are incredibly fat ... there are a lot of bread and the fruits are abundant, melons and grapes are good; it is not in the custom to sell melons, during the ripening period (because of the abundance), and there are no better pears than Andijan ones. "
Andijan city is noted in the sources from the beginning of the IX century. In the IX-X centuries Andijan was a part of the Samanid’s state. In the 14th century, during the reign of Temur, the city experienced a noticeable prosperity of the economy, science and culture.
In the XVI century Andijan was conquered by the Shaibanids and later became part of the Kokand Khanate. In the 19th century Andijan was a member of the Kokand Khanate. Russian inhabitants begin to appear on the territory of Andijan after the accession of the Fergana Valley to Russia. At the same time new city is built outside the fortress wall, on the southern outskirts. The residential building of Andijan in the colonial period is usually single-stored apartment houses made of burnt bricks, collapsible paved houses, which were delivered from Russian in the dismantled form and remunerative houses. There were built banks and trade establishments. There was of construction of the guest yard, one-story buildings of the hospital of the city specialized school. There were two churches in the central and southern parts of the city, there was also a destroyed park inside of which was a small building of the public meeting and the city library.
The Soviet Period brought the new trend to the architecture and life of the city. In 1941 Andijan becomes an administrative center of the newly formed Andijan region. The city grows and becomes larger. Here mechanical engineering factories, chemical enterprises, cotton-ginning factories begin their function. Much attention is payed for the development of oil and gas industry. Relatively warm winter favorably affected the development of such branches of agriculture as cotton growing, horticulture, silkworm breeding, subtropical, stone and horticultural horticulture.
At the end of the year 2011, a program of events was adopted in order to hold celebrations in connection with the upcoming celebration of the 2500th anniversary of the founding of the city of Andijan.
Modern Andijan is one of the largest cities of Uzbekistan, it is a center of mechanical engineering. There is a factory for the production of cars, there are a number of other large enterprises: mechanical engineering factories, canning and dairy factories, a mill, a cotton mill, and a knitting factory.
A beautiful sunny city is becoming more attractive for the recent years: new modern buildings are being built, a network of entertainment and shopping centers are expanding. Andijan is buried in the greenery of gardens, parks and squares.
There is an ancient city Ershi located in the 30 kilometers from Andijan – the capital of the ancient state Davan. In addition, Andijan region is famous for its holy places. One of the most well-known among them is Teshik-Tash, which is a boulder whose base resembles the widely spaced legs of a giant. Another illustrious sacred places are Imam-Ota, Tuzlik Masar, Ok Gur and the Shirmanbulak spring.