Kyzylkum tugai-sandy reserve
Kyzylkum state reserve is situated in two administrative districts and in two regions of Republic of Uzbekistan – I Khorezm and Bukhara. The territory of the reserve is located in the coastal part of the Amudarya River and stretched from the northwest to the southeast for a distance of 30 km; from east to west, it covers a coastal strip of 3 km.
Kyzylkum reserve represents a unique territory of the combination of tugai floodplain forest located in the middle reaches of the Amu Darya, and sections of a typical sandy desert.
Climate of the reserve differs by the great air dryness by sharp temperature fluctuations with a small amount of precipitation by high summer temperatures and by relatively low winter, large evaporation, a rare cloudiness, a prolonged hot summer with strong withering winds.
There are 148 more than 148 species higher vascular plants belonging to 46 families and 110 genera in the Kyzylkum reserve. It should be noted that 40 of the noted species are endemic to Central Asia. There are 11 species of ornamental plants, 28 medicinal plants, 25 honey plants, 39 fodder plants, 2 types of tanning, 4 kinds of poisonous, 4 kinds of food and 3 types of technical plants in the territory of reserve. Two kinds of plants (tulip Sogdi and Korolkova's eurmus) are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Fauna of the reserve is quite different since the combination of the river, tugai forest and desert creates favorable conditions for living both aquatic and water-borne species. There are 27 species of fish characterized by Amu Darya, including several species included in the Red Book of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the International Red List of the IUCN. They are small and large Amudarya pseudo-pathologists, Turkestan and Aral barbel, Aral thorn and some others. There are 29 species of reptiles. Such snakes as gyurza, sandy efa, colorful, spotted and striped stripes, watery, snake-arrow. Among lizards - gray lizard, eared, sandy, takyr and spotted round head, steppe agama, gray monitor, sand, line, striped and other lizards, geckos and others. The Central Asian land tortoise is often found in the reserve.
Fauna of birds is diverse, although its basis is mainly migratory birds, since nesting and sedentary species are represented by a relatively small number of species living within the boundaries of tugai forest and sandy desert. There was a record of 267 species in the reserve in different seasons. Among the sedentary species there are white-winged woodpecker, the Khiva pheasant, the gray or Bukhara tit, the ubiquitous magpie, the saxaul jay, the ringed and small turtledoves, the desert crows, the golden eagle, the saker. A densely number of warbler, foxtail, cricket, sweet, redstart, nightingale, settling under the canopy of tugai forest, represent nesting species. Here you will be able to see a rare brown pigeon, an ordinary turtledove, a haglock and hawks, an ordinary kestrel, a marsh harrier, a small zuyek, a carrier. Beauty bustard, black-bellied and white-bellied peasants, the thick-clawed plover, the deserted warbler, the jealous are nested on the desert plots. And among the migrating species, an especial note should be done for pelicans, black stork, small cormorant, white-tailed eagles and long tail, steppe eagle and many others.
Mammals are represented by 35 species. Among them Bukhara deer occupies a special place since its re-acclimatization has been successful in the reserve, and at a present time this specie vividly represents a tugai ecosystem. Among other species, it is necessary to note the wild boar and jackal, which successfully restored their quantity after the creation of the reserve and nowadays they are a common species. Here there are 3 species of wild cats you can meet at the reserve: a steppe cat, a barchan cat and chaos or a cane cat. There are testimonies about the meetings of the caracal. Wolfs enter the territory of the reserve in winter season. There are usually a fox-karoganka, a hare-tolai, a dressing, a badger, a steppe grouse in the territory of the desert areas. In addition, there are numerous gerbils - a large, midday, tamarisk, thin-heeled ground squirrel. An eared hedgehog is common in the territory of reserve. Gazelles should be noted among other ungulates. Moreover, during the winter migrations, saigas also came here.