Uzbekistan includes the greatest cities with hundreds of architectural monuments of different eras. Such Uzbek cities as Khiva, Samarkand, Bukhara, Shakhrisabz, Kokand and Termez are coevals of the oldest civilizations (Ancient Greece, Rome, China, India). These civilizations were the largest centers of science and culture in ancient times. The greatness and splendour of the mausoleums and mosques amazed the whole world. Each architectural monument still remembers the reigns of Babur and Tamerlane, as well as the times of the conquests of Alexander the Great.
The earliest evidences of the human existence in Uzbekistan date from the Stone Age, the Middle Paleolithic era. Temporary settlements in Samarkand, petroglyphs in Sherabad, in the Machai cave, Boysun and in many other regions of Uzbekistan are referring to the end of the Stone Age. During those times, people began to process bones and horns, invented bow and arrows, learned how to create sharp knife blades. At the same time, fishing appeared. This is evidenced by collections of fishing hooks that were found in the ancient settlement of Airtam in Surkhandarya region, as well as in the northern Tashkent canal.
Petroglyphs depicting human figures were found in the Zaraut-Sai gorge in the Sherabat district of the Surkhandarya region.
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